American Civil WarBy: Breanna, Sonia and Christina
Civil War - A war between people of the same country.
The American Civil War is referred to as The War Between the States because it was a war fought between the Northern States and the Southern States. The North believed that slavery was wrong and they were against the expansion of slavery. Meanwhile, the South had millions of slaves working on plantations. The North were big on manufacturing and they wanted the South to give up their farms, build factories and abolish slavery. Unlike the North, most people in the South worked on farms and got their money from growing crops like cotton, rice, sugar cane and tobacco. They used slaves for most of the work on the plantations.

Union and Confederacy

Advantages and Disadvantages of the North and the South
North - The North produced 75 percent of the nation's wealth, had a bigger army including thousands of black soldiers, better equipment and supplies to fight the war, and strong central government. The North had almost four times as many free citizens as the South. Another advantage for the North was that factories produced more than 90 percent of the nation's manufactured goods. When the war began these factories started making guns, bullets, cannons, boots, uniforms and other supplies. They also had more than 70 percent of the nation's rail lines which was an advantage because it was used to transport both troops and supplies. Lastly, Abraham Lincoln was the president at the time and he supported the Union. Lincoln would appoint generals to command his troops. Despite all of the Northern advantages it had several disadvantages. The South was huge and in order for the North to bring the South back into the Union, they needed to conquer this big area. Since most of the battles were fought in the South, when the Union armies went into the South, they would be more open for attack because their lines of supply would be much longer. Lastly, the North bought their food instead of growing it like the South, so when they ran out they were in trouble.

South- Most of the battles were fought in the South so they had an advantage of knowing the land better. Since there was a lot of wood in the South, the Confedrate soldiers used the woods as shields against the invading Union troops. There were plenty of crops in the South so there was a great supply of food and barely any food shortages. One of biggest advantages was having Robert E. Lee as the Confederate General. Lee was the South's greatest general during the Civil War. The South was known for having the best miltiary leaders. The South had serious economic weaknesses. It had a few factories to produce weapons and other important supplies. There were only a few railroads so it was hard to move troops and supplies. Railroads didn't connect to each other so tracks would run between two points and then stopped. There were also many political problems. The Confederate constitution favored state rights and limited the authority of the central goverment. Very often the Confederate government found it difficult to get things done. The South had a small population, there were only about 9 million people that were part of the Confederacy. Meanwhile, there were about 22 million people that were part of the Union. More than one third of the Southern population were enslaved African Americans, so the South did not have enough people to serve as soldiers and support the war.

Leaders of the War
President Jefferson Davis - President Davis of the Confederacy was a military leader that played a big role in the outcome of the war. Davis's experience prepared him for being a leader. He attended the United States Military Academy and served as a officer in the Mexican War. Davis was also the Secretary of War for President Franklin Pierce. This made Davis widely respected for his courage and even considered to be a stronger leader than Lincoln.

President Abraham Lincoln - Elected president in 1860, Lincoln played a big part in the Civil War. Lincoln had little experience in the army, since he only served in the Black Hawk War for a short amount of time. At first, Lincoln was doubted a lot for his ability to lead since he did not have much experience with national politics and military matters. Lincoln was considered an abolitionist because he was against slavery. Two of the reasons Lincoln supported the Union was because he wanted to end slavery and keep the Union together. Even though Lincoln had barely any experience, as the war progressed, he becomes more important.

Robert E. Lee - Lee was the Confederate army general of Northern Virginia. He was a huge advantage to the South because he was the South's greatest general. Lincoln asked Lee if he would command the Union army but he later refused Lincoln's request. Robert E. Lee had loads of experience, which made him the best general. He graduated from the United States Military Academy, then served in the Army Corps of Engineers. Lee was called the "best soldier" by his officer in the Mexican War. Lee chose to fight in the war because he wanted to fight for his own home state.
Robert E Lee
Robert E Lee

Ulysses S. Grant - Grant was the general of the Union army. Grant trained at the Military Academy at West Point, New York. Like Robert E. Lee, Grant also served in the Mexican War as a second lieutenant. Then Grant joined the army for a second time, as a general for the Union Army. Grant became President of the United States twice, and was considered to be a great war hero.

Causes of War
The division between the South and the Union was one of the biggest causes. Southerners believed that they had the right to leave the Union.They also believed that they were mainly fighting in the war for Southern Independence. Southerners wanted their own independence because they wanted to maintain their way of life, which involved slavery. Slavery was another big cause of the war. Northerners wanted to fight to save the Union. Abolishing slavery was wrong in the eyes of northerners, but that wasn't their main goal. Surprisingly, many northerners approved of slavery. There was also economic differences. In the North, the economy was based on manufacturing. The South had large amounts of slaves working on plantations, which grew cotton. Basically the South's economy revolved around cash crops. These differences in economies causes a divsion. When Lincoln was elected president, he wanted to abolish slavery. Abolishing slavery would take away the South's way of life. Southerner's also felt that the federal goverment treated them unfairly. They beleived that a state had the right to overturn any law the federal goverment passed. Northerner's would argue that state rights would make the country weaker.
Cotton Plantation
Cotton Plantation

Major Battles
Battle of Bull Run - On July 21, 1861 Union troops set out from Washington, D.C., for Richmond. The Union troops didn't get too far when they met up with the Confederate solders, and had a battle. This battle took place near a stream in Virginia called Bull Run. The Union was winning at first, until they panicked and ran away. The Battle of Bull Run showed the Union and Confederate soldiers that they needed a lot more training. It also showed how long, miserable and bloody it would be.

Shiloh - The Battle of Shiloh was one of the most bloodiest two-day battles in American history. This battle was fought in southern Tennessee. Ulysses S. Grant moved his soldiers deep into Tennessee and camped at the Pittsburg Landing. Sydney Johnston, the leader of the Confederates, launched a surprise attack on Grant. On the first day of the battle, the Confederates aimed for driving the Union defenders away from the river and into Owl Creek. There was a lot of confusion on the Confederate battle lines. Confederates did win the first day, but not the second day when the Union forced a counterattack along the Confederate battle line. The Confederates were forced to retreat and they lost. At the end, the Union had control of both ends of the Mississippi. The South could no longer use the river as a supply line.

Battle of Antietam - On September 1862, General Lee marched his troops into Maryland. At an abandoned Confederate campsite, a Union officer found a copy of General Lee's battle plan. McClellan was overjoyed and used this information against Lee. After a few days, he attacked Lee's main force at Antietam on September 17. The Battle of Antietam lasted all day and more than 23,000 Union and Confedrate soldeirs were killed or wounded. It was not clear who won the battle at the Battle of Antietam. The North could claim victory because Lee told his forces to withdraw. Lincoln was not happy with McClellan because he did not fully pursue the Confederates. McClellan was then replaced with General Ambrose Burnside.

Battle of Fredericksburg - This battle was the Union's worst defeat. Lee's forces dug into the crest of a hill, meeting Burnside's army at Fredricksburg, Virginia. Confederates had a strong defensive position. Guns of the Confederate soldiers charged the Union troops over and over again. This battle ended with the Union troops losing.

Battle of Chancellorsville - In May 1863, Lee with Stonewall Jackson, outmaneuvered the Union forces. The Battle of Chancellorsville also took place in Virginia. Lee and Jackson defeated the Union troops in three days. The South's victory came at a high price. The Confederate soldiers fired their guns at who they thought was a Union soldier. The 'Union Soldier" was General Stonewall Jackson. Jackson ended up dying from his injuries.

Fall of Vicksburg - The Union already captured New Orleans and Memphis and controlled both ends of the Mississippi River. Grant's forces kept on trying to seize Vicksburg. He launched a surprsie attack on Jackson, Mississippi. Later, he attacked Vicksburg from the rear. Six weeks went by and Grant's forces still kept their position at Vicksburg. On July 9, Union troops captured Hudson, Louisiana. The Union controlled the entire Mississippi. The Confederacy was split into two parts; Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana were cut off from the rest of the Confederate States.

Battle of Gettysburg - On June 30, 1863, a Union officer named General George C. Meade became part of Lee's army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg was one of the most important battles of the Civil War. The first day, the Confederates drove the union out of Gettysburg. Yankees took positions on Cemetery Ridge. The next day, Lee ordered an attack on both ends of the Union line. Southern troops fought hard but they had suffered heavy casualties but failed to dislodge the Union army. Lee wanted to attack again so he ordered George Pickett to charge against the center of the Union line. The noise of the battle was "strange and terrible, a sound that came from thousands of human throats..." Pickett's charge failed to defeat the Union. Lee had no choice but to retreat, after they were defeated at Gettsyburg. Confederates could never invade the North again.

Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg

Gettysburg Address
"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." - Abraham Lincoln

Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation was an order by Abraham Lincoln to free slaves written on January 1,1863. The Proclamation didn't immediately free all slaves. It only freed slaves in the ten states still in rebellion in 1863. It did not apply to slaves in Union states and some areas of the Confederacy that were already under Union control. The Proclamation did free about 50,000 slaves immediately and nearly all 4 million slaves as the union army went into confederate states. The Proclamation didn't apply to areas in Virginia and Louisiana since the Union already controlled slavery here. The Emancipation Proclamation remained in effect until 1865 when the constitution was amended to abolish slavery.

Results of The Civil War
General Grant knew that the North would be able to replace men and supplies and the South could not. General Lee and the Confederate army went to a small town in Virginia called Appomattox Court House. A week later in that same town the Confederates were trapped by the Union troops. Lee knew that his troops would not make it if he kept fighting. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered. Soldiers were required to give in their rifles, but the officers were allowed to keep their pistols. Ten soldiers that had horses were allowed to keep them since they would need them in the spring to plow. Grant ordered, "Each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by the United States authorities.". Some Union soldiers began to cheer when the Confederates surrendered. When Union soldiers began to cheer Grant ordered them to be silent. Grant said, "The war is over, the rebels are our countrymen again.". During the Civil War more than 360,000 Union soldiers and 250,000 Confederate soldiers died. No war has ever ended in that many American deaths. The Civil War cost about $20 billion, that is more than 10 times rhe amount of money spent by the federal government between 1789 and 1861. After the war the balance of power changed, the democratic party lost its influence, and the Republicans were in a comanding position. The Civil War put an end to slavery in the United States. The South's economy was hurt badly because most of the war was fought there. Also, soon after the war several new amendments were added to the Constitution. Slavery was ended by the 13th amendment and the 14th Amendment, passed in June 1865, gave citizenship to all people born in the United States.

Robert E. Lee Surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant